Mapping of Community-based Climate Change Adaptation Initiatives/Projects in Africa
1. Title of your Project
Community-Led Climate Adaptation Programme for Sustainable Livelihoods in Coastal Areas of Southwestern Nigeria
2. Name of organisation
Management and coordination: United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) Climate Change Programme (CCP)
ACCCA Implementation: ENDA TM and CSAG UCT
Pilot project implementation: University of Ibadan (Nigeria) (research team of University of Ibadan in collaboration with the Ogun State Agricultural Development Program and the Foundation for Development and Environmental Initiatives).
3. Location of project
Community: Igbosere and Elefon
Province: Ogun State coastline
4. Project duration
Project started: June 2007
Project finished (if applicable): December 2009
5. Contact information
Name of contact person: Ibidun Adelakan
Name of organisation: University of Ibidan, Department of Geography
Detailed address: -
Phone: (+234) (0) 8023470003
Website of your project (if different): www.accca-project.org
3. Summary of practice
The specific objectives and the strategy of the project are to:
1. Characterize the vulnerabilities of individual fishing households and livelihood groups
2. Investigate the past and current adaptive responses as well as identify mechanisms that engender planned and unplanned actions to resist and cope with flood risks in the two communities.
3. Examine the best possible strategies including indigenous options and information needs of stakeholders for achieving adaptation to flood risks
4. Increase knowledge and awareness of flood risks in coastal areas and capacity of coastal communities
5. Increase knowledge and capacity of key decision makers and planners in local government state and national policy and institutional structures to support adaptation to flood risks.es.
4. Context/Approach description
The fisheries sector is a significant aspect of Nigeria’s food system accounting for 40 per cent of the population’s annual protein intake. The importance of this food system to the economy is further observed in the proportion of economically active population engaged in fishing.
The principal economic activity of 81% of male household heads is fishing. 85.4% of women engage in fish processing and marketing. In addition, educational level is low in pilot communities. 39.5% of household heads have no formal education. 36% have some level of primary education while only 3% have tertiary education. Only 53% of children below 12 years of age attend school.
Artisanal coastal fisheries have been affected by climate variability and changes in recent years. Floods arising from increasing rainfall and changes in variability of rainfall during the rainy season months of April to October have become a major threat to coastal communities.
In this context, there are barriers and limitations to effective adaptation to climate risks in coastal communities:
- Limited/no access to credit facilities from government and other sources
- Inadequate presence of local/state government structures in rural fishing communities.
- Development planning at local/state government levels does not take into consideration vulnerabilities and needs of communities.
- Lack of use of climate information in local planning. Livelihood and social organizations in fishing communities are not empowered to help themselves. Skills and knowledge for pursuing alternative means of livelihoods not available to fishing households.
5. Community involvement
The community has been involved through the creation of “community climate and livelihood forums” that worked around two themes: the health programme and the livelihood diversification.
The health programs were undertaken in two phases. The first health education program was aimed at providing community members in the two pilot project communities with health knowledge to aid in the prevention of some of the prevalent diseases identified during the data collection stage. Two health personnel from the Primary Health Care department at the local government headquarters, Abigi, facilitated the program in each of the project communities.
A Voluntary Village Health Workers (VVHW) training program was also held. Two VVHWs from each of the two project communities were trained intensively by health workers from the Local Govt Health Department to be able to provide basic health care to community members in the absence of adequate health facilities in the project area. Each of the four VVHWs was provided with a well stocked box of basic drugs.
The livelihood diversification activities were organized around different activities. Women groups were organized to share knowledge, skills and support activities that enhance adaptive capacity including livelihood diversification. In this respect two community training/empowerment programs were organized.
1. Postharvest fisheries management
Practical field demonstrations on fish handling/smoking, fish meal production and fish feed production were given to one hundred fisher folks, mostly women beneficiaries, of the pilot communities. This was facilitated by resource persons from the Ogun State Agricultural Development Programme (OGADEP). About 85 participants were provided with the skills of producing fish meal and fish feed. Fish meal production from fish discards and fish trash which are readily available and abundant wastes from fish processing activities and spoilages from flood accidents and spoilages due to much moisture in the environment provide an alternative income generating source for women folk while reducing the losses that are incurred during the flood periods. Fish feed for aquaculture is produced from fish meal. Improved fish handling and smoking, and fish meal and fish feed production has potential for enhancing the livelihoods and providing additional incomes for fisher folks. During the wet season months when preserving processed fish and reaching the market is a great challenge the adoption of this new skill will aid in increasing the adaptive capacity of fishers especially women. The training program was the first of its kind in the fishing communities, these skills had not been introduced to fishers of Ogun coastal area.
2. Soap making workshops
Two soap making workshops were organized; one in each community. The activity was planned based on a participatory needs assessment of vocational skills for the women folk to complement their fish processing and marketing activities. Facilitators for the soap training workshop were from the Vocational Training Centre of The Justice Development and Peace Commission, an NGO in Ijebu-Ode, Ogun State.